Engineering & Machinery Corporation v. CA
Pursuant to the contract dated September 10, 1962 between petitioner and private respondent, the former undertook to fabricate, furnish and install the air-conditioning system in the latter’s building along Buendia Avenue, Makati in consideration of P210,000.00. Petitioner was to furnish the materials, labor, tools, and all services required in order to so fabricate and install the said system. The system was completed in 1963 and accepted by private respondent, who paid in full the contract price.
On September 2, 1965, private respondent sold the building to the National Investment and Development Corporation (NIDC). The latter took possession of the building but on account of NIDC’s noncompliance with the terms and conditions of the deed of sale, private respondent was able to secure judicial rescission thereof. The ownership of the building having been decreed back to private respondent, he re-acquired possession sometime in 1971. It was then that he learned from some NIDC, employees of the defects of the air-conditioning system of the building.
Acting on this information, private respondent commissioned Engineer David R. Sapico to render a technical evaluation of the system in relation to the contract with petitioner. In his report, Sapico enumerated the defects of the system and concluded that it was “not capable of maintaining the desired room temperature of 76ºF – 2ºF.
On the basis of this report, private respondent filed on May 8, 1971 an action for damages against petitioner with the then Court of First Instance of Rizal (Civil Case No. 14712). The complaint alleged that the air-conditioning system installed by petitioner did not comply with the agreed plans and specifications. Hence, private respondent prayed for the amount of P210,000.00 representing the rectification cost, P100,000.00 as damages and P15,000.00 as attorney’s fees.
Petitioner moved to dismiss the complaint, alleging that the prescriptive period of six months had set in pursuant to Articles 1566 and 1567, in relation to Article 1571 of the Civil Code, regarding the responsibility of a vendor for any hidden faults or defects in the thing sold.
Whether the contract for the fabrication and installation of a central air-conditioning system in a building is one of “sale” or “for a piece of work”
Contract for a piece of work. A contract for a piece of work, labor and materials may be distinguished from a contract of sale by the inquiry as to whether the thing transferred is one not in existence and which would never have existed but for the order, of the person desiring it. In such case, the contract is one for a piece of work, not a sale. On the other hand, if the thing subject of the contract would have existed and been the subject of a sale to some other person even if the order had not been given, then the contract is one of sale.
To Tolentino, the distinction between the two contracts depends on the intention of the parties. Thus, if the parties intended that at some future date an object has to be delivered, without considering the work or labor of the party bound to deliver, the contract is one of sale. But if one of the parties accepts the undertaking on the basis of some plan, taking into account the work he will employ personally or through another, there is a contract for a piece of work.
Clearly, the contract in question is one for a piece of work. It is not petitioner’s line of business to manufacture air-conditioning systems to be sold “off-the-shelf.” Petitioner’s business and particular field of expertise is the fabrication and installation of such systems as ordered by customers and in accordance with the particular plans and specifications provided by the customers. Naturally, the price or compensation for the system manufactured and installed will depend greatly on the particular plans and specifications agreed upon with the customers.